Original title: the United States spent 500 million to study underground warfare. One of the most important strategic objectives of the north is "Guang Shen". What are the intentions?
Source: a lookout think tank
In June 24th, the U. S. Army's military web site, "the US Army spent five hundred million dollars to train soldiers to fight underground," the United States Army senior said that the next war will take place in the "super city".
Since the end of 2017, the United States has invested about $572 million in training and equipping 26 active combat brigades (a total of 31) in order to prepare for large-scale underground space operations in large, densely populated cities around the world.
The US military has invested so much manpower and financial resources in the research of this new type of war. Its strategic plan is worth pondering.
Is the United States ready to use the "last war" to solve the disobedient countries?
Yi Fang Yi Fang special researcher
Editors Li Xue lookout think tank
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The shift of the gravity of the American War
The city is not only a gathering area of wealth, but also a potential area of war potential, or an important strategic zone for national security. According to statistics, up to 94% of US military operations were carried out in cities after 250 World War II military operations after World War II.
But in fact, for a long time, unless forced to do so, the US Army will not take the initiative to fight the enemy in the city.
The reason is not difficult to imagine:
The city's population and buildings are very dense, fighting here, on the one hand, on the one hand, the crime of "making humanitarian disaster" is on the back. On the other hand, there are many problems, such as the endless street fighting, the barrier break, the enemy and the enemy identification, and the remaining enemy in the building. There is also the threat of a terrorist suicide attack.
The war in Aachen in the Second World War was the first lesson of modern urban warfare at the cost of more than 5000 people. In 1968, the battle of American and NATO's compliance with more than 4000 people proved that the US Army was a "weak man" in urban warfare. Since the beginning of the 80s of last century, the American army has really started to study and solve the problem of urban war. Since then, a relatively perfect system of combat theory and rich experience in urban warfare have been formed.
In the second battle of Fei Lujie in 2004, under the guidance of "fast and decisive battle", the US army took the nonlinear operational mode under the guidance of "fast and decisive battle", made full use of the advantages of information operations and carried out integrated joint operations. At a small cost, it hit against the anti American armed forces and regained the control of Fei Lujie. It opened from the second times. A new mode of urban offensive operations since the war.
General Wayne Mike Hall, a former senior adviser to the Urban Warfare Office of the United States Joint Operations Command, declared, "we will be fighting in the urban area for the next 100 years."
From "oversize" to "oversize"
In 2014, the special report of the United States Army "mega cities and the United States Army" and the joint integration concept of urban combat in 2027 of the United forces command quickly raised the upsurge of the mega city operations, which also marked the maturity of the US Army in the theory of attack operations in megacities.
Note: the United States calls cities with a population of more than 10 million as "mega cities", and calls cities with a population of more than 20 million as "super large cities".
Since then, in order to carry out the training, the United States Army has established a modern city complex in the asymmetric operations center of the asymmetric operations team in Fort Virginia, which uses virtual training to improve the army's urban operational capability.
The United States United States "united city war outline" believes that "the city is the most likely battlefield of the twenty-first Century", is the "center of gravity of war and battle" in the future, and will win the victory of the war in a big city.
Tom Pappas, director of the planning office of the U. S. Army training and order command intelligence department, says the army has begun to plan for the future, and studies some cities in Asia and Africa as representative megacities to meet the challenges of future mega cities.
In September 2016, the United States Marine Corps released "how the twenty-first Century expeditionary force fought". Aiming at the war after 2025, the Marine Corps required the improvement of the operational capability of the Marine Corps in the urban terrain. It must be trained to cope with the overall and full range of regional divisions, including urban streets. Areas, streets, sewers and tunnels.
In June 2017, the United States Defense Advanced Research Program (DARPA) unveiled a new plan for coastal city operations, which aims to help the United States by using more "subversive" technology in the urban operations of the coastal areas for those who are technically catching up and losing its technical advantage in operational operations. The army reconstructs its technological superiority in complex urban warfare environment and relies on technological advantages to establish tactical advantages.
In the future, with the development of advanced information technology and the improvement of remote attack technology, as well as the strategic support operations of network and space, many changes have taken place in the mechanism of winning the war. Big consumption of the strength of the purpose.
The major strategic focus of a country lies in its political or economic center, which represents the future of the large and even super large cities. The strategic focus of the strategic rivals determined by the US security strategy is a number of super cities.
The reason why American forces dare to make such decisions is due to the current land, sea, air, sky, sky, network, electrical technology, and the development of "long arm" attack technology and strategic delivery technology, making it possible to make the battle style of the large city straight.
Now, the US military has used "super city operations" as a typical form of war in twenty-first Century.
At the moment, the US Army is working on a 100 - year - long war road map that focuses on how to occupy and combat large cities, especially the super urban operations in developing countries.
From "on the ground" to "underground"
The operation of mega cities has become the focus of the US Army's planning, and the urban underground space has become the top priority.
The importance of urban underground space is increasingly prominent.
Underground space has become an important part of national sovereignty, and it is the third major field that human beings can develop beyond space and ocean resources.
The underground space battlefield has become the seventh dimensional strategic space after land, sea, air, sky, electricity and network.
Generally speaking, urban underground space can be divided into three categories:
* commercial profitability, such as underground street and Commercial Street, underground garage, underground warehouse and so on;
* the nature of public services, such as underground roads, undersea tunnels, urban common trench (underground pipelines, integrated pipe corridors), underground libraries, schools, etc.
* the nature of military urban defense, such as air raid shelter and air defense basement, air defense command, underground missile launcher / submarine base / Arsenal / nuclear weapon test.
At present, the development and utilization of underground space in various countries, especially in developed countries, has reached a considerable scale.
Moreover, underground facilities are becoming more and more integrated for military purposes and civilian purposes.
* underground works in the United States can accommodate 120 million people, accounting for 57% of the total population. For example, the underground section of the 255 km subway in New York can cover 4 million 500 thousand people; Washington's underground garage can stop more than 20 thousand cars and cover more than 50% people in the city during the war.
* the underground works built by the former Soviet Union can accommodate 180 million people, representing 68% of the total population at that time. In the construction of the Moscow subway, Russia fully considered the requirements of civil defense, its structural resistance was very high, its maximum depth was 90 meters, and 3 million 500 thousand people could be covered during the war.
* underground works constructed in Sweden and Switzerland can accommodate over 85% of the total population.
* the fortifications built by Israel can accommodate 100% of the total population of the country.
It can be said that underground space is the last line of defense for the survival of a nation or a nation.
Once this line of defense is broken, it means the destruction of a city and even a country.
Defense of PK attack
If the battlefield in the urban underground space, the "home" country has a considerable defensive advantage, and as one of the offensive, the U. S. Army is facing the disadvantages that can not be ignored.
The advantage of the defender
* Familiar with the underground space environment, the underground space can be used as a transportation line, a supply line and a support line.
* concealing military targets and avoiding reconnaissance, surveillance and surveillance from high technology such as space, high altitude and electronics.
* with strong anti damage effect, precision guided weapons, UAVs, high power microwave weapons, kinetic energy weapons, blasting vibration, nuclear radiation and so on are not able to play an effective role in the underground battlefield.
The inferiority of the offensive side
* in the unfamiliar combat space, the situation of the underground battlefield space is poor, and the favorable terrain can not be found quickly, and the shield of avoiding the enemy fire is short.
* the electromagnetic environment of underground battlefield is more complex, and communication and navigation may be blocked.
* advanced weapons and equipment and land and sea attack platforms are difficult to perform normally, and are easily trapped in similar ground battles and battles in buildings.
To solve these problems, we need a lot of theory and practice. Although the US Army has gone through similar targeted training, it still failed to achieve the desired result in the actual combat process.
In Afghanistan and Iraq, the U. S. Army has seen the power of relying on the "hole" and the urbanization, which poses a threat to the security of the military personnel. But the complexity of this kind of underground and underground warfare is not as good as that of underground cities.
Taking the Iraq war as an example, the US Army conducted a simulation training against the "underground warfare" of the Iraqi army before the war began more than a year ago. The site was selected in the desert of Mojave, California, where the US Army set up an underground Warfare Center.
It is said that the center simulates the construction of underground facilities in Afghanistan and Iraq, with a total of about 480 kilometers of tunnels and underground passages, which have many similarities with the urban underground environment.
However, the US Army has been greatly restricted in its subsequent operations.
Especially in the battle of Mosul from November 2016 to July 2017, the US Army saw the importance of preparing for underground warfare.
The old urban area of Mosul is densely populated with more than 5000 buildings, narrow and curved streets and unaccessible vehicles. In particular, the armed elements have formed a huge underground tunnel system after a long period of transformation to old buildings, which can effectively avoid reconnaissance and flexible forces. This complex topographic environment has caused a big loss in the early attack of the US Army. The U.S. Army supported by the US Army has to take 4 months to prepare for the war and put in the strength of the 13:1's force, even if it takes 9 months, almost 4 times the time of the plan.
Therefore, the problem of underground space operations at this time is the need of the actual situation, the underground space war into a "new war", this is the US Army that is
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