[global network military July 12th reports Global Times special reporter Shi Liufeng heavy Global Times reporter Guo Yuandan] the NATO summit in Brussels, Belgium, 11, the opening of the summit, the biggest focus of this summit is Trump and NATO allies on the proportion of the cost sharing of defense costs. In the face of Trump's "tweet offensive" complaining that "other NATO allies have too little defense spending", NATO has reported that the total defense spending of NATO member countries rose by 1.84% in 2018 to more than $1 trillion. This is also the first time that the defense expenditure of NATO member countries broke through the trillions of nations since 2012, and the investment and use of such huge amount of defense expenditure have aroused wide attention.
Where does the NATO military charge come from
First of all, the most talked about topic is how much NATO's military expenditure is, and where does it come from? According to the 11 day of Russian satellite network, NATO's 10 day report released by NATO showed that the national defense expenditure of NATO member countries rose by 1.84% in 2018, and will be over 1 trillion US dollars for the first time since 2012. According to NATO official data, the total defense expenditure of all NATO member countries in 2017 was 958 billion 710 million US dollars, compared with over 1 trillion US dollars in 2018.
NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg said at a press conference on 10, NATO member states in 2019 will achieve a record growth in military spending.
Because of NATO's collective defense system, under the background of insufficient military spending in other countries, the United States, the most powerful military nation, naturally bears the most. NATO documents show that by the end of 2017, US military spending accounted for 72% of NATO's total military expenditure. This means that NATO's overall military defense capabilities have been overly dependent on American military capabilities, especially in information, monitoring, reconnaissance, air refueling, ballistic missile defense and air electronic warfare.
The Global Times reporter found that NATO's military expenditure is made up of the contribution of all member countries, which is mainly divided into two parts, some are direct funds and some are indirect funds. Direct funds are divided into two parts, mutual funds and joint funds. The common fund is shared by all Member States and is mainly used for three major budgetary expenditures: Civil budget, military budget and NATO Security investment. The civil budget includes the operating expenses of NATO headquarters; the military budget is mainly used for the integration of NATO's military command and action; NATO's security investment, that is, the investment in military strength. In 2017, the total amount of the three budget was $2 billion 450 million, and the apportionment of the NATO member states had a specific indicator, of which the United States took the most, accounting for 22.1%; the other 5 countries with higher proportion were 14.6% in Germany, 10.6% in France, 9.8% in Britain, 8.4% in Italy and 6.6% in Canada. Joint funds in direct funds refer to certain projects that are jointly undertaken by the participating member states and do not involve other member states.
In fact, direct funds are still small in NATO's military expenditure. The real big expenditure is indirect funds. Indirect funds refer mainly to the costs involved by the member states in voluntarily putting in equipment and forces for NATO's military operations. This indirect funding is voluntary by Member States, so the difference is very large.
On the issue of military spending, no one in NATO countries wants to contribute too much, which is also an important source of Trump's ripping off with NATO allies. Especially in the newly joined central and Eastern European countries since the NATO's eastern expansion, the average national economy level itself is lower than the Western European countries, and it is more important in defense expenditure.
Since Trump took office, it has repeatedly urged NATO allies to increase the proportion of their military expenses, requiring NATO members to increase defense spending to 2% of their gross national product. Only a few countries such as Britain, Estonia and Greece barely reached the target.
Where is the huge expense used
Where 1 trillion dollars of military spending will be used is also a major concern. During the cold war, NATO's defense spending was mainly used to deal with the Soviet Union. Since the end of the cold war, the military expenditure of NATO has been mainly used in three major directions, one is the defense construction of Western European countries, the two is the United States led war on terrorism, and the three is the eastern expansion of NATO.
Among NATO members, Western European countries account for the overwhelming majority, and many of NATO's expenditure is actually used in defense construction in these countries. According to Bloomberg report, even if we leave the United States, the other NATO members' military strength should not be underestimated. From the conventional force, NATO European countries have 1 million 780 thousand soldiers, and European allies have nearly 7000 main battle tanks, 2612 fighters and 382 attack helicopters; both France and the UK have aircraft carriers. NATO member states are fully capable of fighting against the millions of Russian troops in conventional warfare. In terms of nuclear deterrence, according to the British government statistics, France has as many as 300 nuclear warheads, while the United Kingdom has 120. Compared with the 4000 nuclear warheads in the United States and 4300 nuclear warheads in Russia, this is not a lot, but the deterrent is enough. Moreover, Britain and France also have about 30% of NATO's ballistic missile submarines.
Since 9. 11, the United States has led the war in Afghanistan, and the fight against terrorism has spread to Syria today, and some European countries, despite their reluctance, have been dragged into American counter-terrorism vehicles. In 2011 Afghanistan, the European allies invested 38 thousand soldiers, almost half of the United States. According to a new report issued by the United States Center for international strategic research, 9 European countries are larger than the United States in the global campaign against "Islamic countries". Some Western European countries have been complaining that, if not fighting the war on terrorism, the European members of NATO do not have to send valuable troops to Afghanistan and Iraq, but should be used to combat European trafficking and smuggling.
NATO's eastward expansion is also an important investment direction for NATO's defense spending. Despite Russia's repeated opposition, NATO has brought the Eastern European countries Poland, the former Soviet Union, Lithuania and other countries into its arms, which is to push the line under the Russian eye. Since the Crimea crisis, the confrontation between Russia and NATO has reached the worst since the end of the cold war. In order to increase the containment efforts to Russia, NATO's funds for consolidating the eastern enlargement defense line increased significantly.
A Chinese researcher who asked for anonymity was interviewed by a Global Times reporter on 11 days, saying that the military expenditure of NATO countries is still independent, even in the cost of NATO joint forces, and NATO is only responsible for its control. During the cold war, Europe was a great threat, so each country paid a lot of money. After the cold war, because of the decrease in threat, the member countries were reluctant to spend more on military expenses. The United States spends most of its military spending on NATO troops and some military operations.
There is a lot of money in the annual military exercise
The joint military exercises held by the member states within the NATO framework are another consumption of NATO's military spending. In recent years, NATO's larger scale of military exercises is on average as many as dozens of games a year, compared with the famous "firm determination" military exercises in Europe, the "Sands" war zone air defense anti missile exercises in the United States and the "sester" space war network war exercises, and the "Maple Leaf flag" air combat joint exercise in Canada. The "strong leopard" military exercise in Africa, the "peace shield" and "cooperative" military exercises held in Eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea. Although the United States, for reasons such as secrecy, has not disclosed the detailed overhead of military exercises at the door of Russia, it is absolutely burning money with thousands of soldiers, a large number of warships, warships and aircraft. In 2015, when Bob Walker, the United States Deputy Defense commander, testified at the U.S. House of Representatives Military Committee, the United States added 950 million US dollars to the "European security plan", mainly for the rotation of 1 Army armoured brigades in Eastern Europe, and the deployment of the navy in the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea and the execution of air vigilance. According to this estimate, NATO's annual large-scale military exercises will cost considerably.
Judging from the strength of the participating forces, the main focus of NATO's military exercises in recent years is mainly located in Russia's periphery, where the military exercises are approaching the Russian doorstep. In 2015, NATO held 3 large-scale military exercises of "Baltic Sea Action", "agile reaction" and "Trident juncture" for Russia. In 2016, large joint military exercises such as Python and iron wolf were held in Poland and Lithuania respectively. In 2018, a series of large-scale joint performances such as "Baltic action" and "saber attack" were held successively.
From the point of view of the exercise process, military exercises often span the Baltic Sea, and warships have entered the Black Sea area many times, showing that Russia has formed a two line attack. At the same time, in order to improve the capacity of rapid response ability and large range (such as the reinforcement of the three countries of the Baltic Sea), as well as the cooperation ability of the army and sea air three Army (including the new field of network war). But on the other hand, these military exercises have also led to frequent attacks on Russia. The Russian and American warships often play "cat and mouse game".
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