Original title: recycling enterprises difficult to make profits, the use of a stalemate power battery recycling urgent problems
The first power battery recovery tide has arrived, and will enter the large-scale scrapping stage of power batteries in 2018. Since the beginning of this year, the major recycling enterprises have speeded up the horse race enclosure, and have been able to seize the recycling entrance and improve the market share by binding the head car manufacturers and battery manufacturers.
However, from the current situation, the recovery and utilization of decommissioned power batteries is still in the exploratory stage, and most of the recycling enterprises have little or no profit. The high cost of recycling and the superposition of new batteries have led to a deadlock in the use of batteries.
Industry insiders believe that the key to breaking the deadlock is to reasonably determine recovery pricing, standardization and modularization of battery design to match the recycling scene from the source of the design.
Binding recycling channel
Building recycling system is a crucial step in the process of power battery recovery.
"The recycling of traditional waste lead-acid batteries is in a small dispersion state, and most of them are lost in the irregular channels. The whole life cycle of scrap, treatment and element recovery is basically uncontrollable. Power battery recycling can not repeat the same mistakes. We should build a recycling system from the national strategic level so as to avoid losing control and generating pollution. Lin Zhongjun pointed out.
The introduction of recycling management policy reflects the urgency of establishing a recycling system. In January 2017, the general office of the State Council issued the programme for the implementation of the extended producer responsibility system, which requires electric vehicles and battery manufacturers to be responsible for the establishment of a waste battery recycling network. In March of this year, the seven ministries and commissions jointly issued the Interim Measures for the management of the recycling and utilization of power batteries for new energy vehicles, which required the automobile production enterprises to undertake the main responsibility of the power storage battery recovery. This approach will be implemented from August 1st this year.
The policy is about to be implemented. Under the double effect of the huge market temptation and the responsibility of the recovery subject, the car enterprises and battery factories have set out to lay out the battery recycling business, speed up the horse racing and bind the recycling channels.
In January 4th, 16 vehicle and battery enterprises, such as Changan, BYD, silver long new energy, and battery enterprises and the power battery recycling and utilization of China iron tower company to achieve cooperation, to solve the problem of recycling power battery recycling and reuse. In March, SAIC Group and the Ningde era signed the strategic cooperation memorandum to promote new energy vehicles jointly. The power battery is reused and reused. Ningde era has acquired the power battery recovery field in 2013, and in May 8th, the green America Bulletin signed the strategic cooperation framework agreement on the recovery and utilization of battery power battery and other areas by North steam group, North steam group, Beijing.
"For car manufacturers and battery manufacturers, this move is mainly aimed at fulfilling the main responsibility of recycling. But for the recovery enterprises, the strategic cooperation mainly lies in binding the channel side and grabbing the recycling entrance. This is a crucial part of power battery recovery. " Zhao Xiaoyong said.
Judging from the current situation, the battery recycling market is mainly based on third party enterprises. GF Securities analysts believe that the third party enterprises in the leading position are dependent on cooperation with vehicle companies to control recycling channels. For example, Hunan bump and BMW /CATL, Grammy and BYD, Jiangxi Hao Peng and Beiqi new energy.
"Can we find a better way without cooperation with car companies? By working with automobile manufacturers, the battery can be quickly returned to the recycling plant. " Xu Kaihua emphasized that establishing a cooperative relationship with the large car companies at the forefront of the market can improve market share in the subsequent market competition.
In addition to the car companies, the recovery companies are speeding up cooperation with the power battery manufacturers, including the partners of dry Thai and sead.
Zhao Xiaoyong believes that from the perspective of the value of recycling channels, car companies and battery manufacturers have their own advantages. The advantage of car companies is that they have dense 4S outlets and have a relatively complete recycling network. But there may be more batteries in the hands of a large battery factory. First, the good rate of power battery is only about 90%-92%, and a lot of waste batteries are generated during the production process. The battery returned to the car companies by consumers or operators will usually be returned to the battery factory for repair or replacement.
Even so, the current recycling system is not enough to cover fully decommissioned power batteries. Zhao Xiaoyong believes that the decommissioning battery during the warranty period is better. This part of the battery is out of order, the car company will replace the battery, the battery that needs to be repaired will return to the battery factory, and the scrap battery will be handed over to the recycling enterprise. "In addition, there are two other channels that are basically uncontrollable. First, after the vehicle is scrapped, the battery may flow into the informal channel with the vehicle, and the two is the battery which has passed the warranty period but has not been scrapped. This part of the battery is in the hands of individual consumers or operators. After the quality problem occurs, it is easy to flow into small workshops that do not have recycling qualification.
Echelon use of deadlock
Battery recycling includes two steps: cascade utilization and recovery and dismantling. Echelon utilization is the detection and screening of power batteries decommissioned from electric vehicles, and the low performance requirements for battery energy storage after pairing. The dismantling and utilization is to recycle the batteries and recover cobalt and lithium. "Cascade utilization + recovery and dismantling" can give full play to the value of power battery.
"At present, several large enterprises with the ability of recycling are trying to recover, some only do recovery and dismantling, and there are two combinations, but there is no profit or even loss. Trying to carry out these businesses, one is responsible for the recovery of responsibility, the two is to seize the market in advance. Liu Yanlong pointed out.
Lin Zhongjun believes that the recovery of profits is too low or even a loss, mainly in the early recovery of power battery value is not high. The specifications and types of power batteries for early production are complicated, resulting in various types of batteries that are decommissioned at the early stage. "It is difficult to reduce costs by scale production. Because some batteries are too small to meet the needs of terminal products, they can not enter the cascade utilization stage at all.
The profit of recovery and dismantling is also very small. "Most of the power batteries currently decommissioned are lithium iron phosphate. The lithium iron phosphate battery has a low content of valuable elements, so it is not profitable to use traditional wet recovery. Most enterprises are reluctant to recycle. Zhao Xiaoyong pointed out.
Reducing the cost of power battery recovery has become the focus of the industry. "The price of the new battery is getting lower and lower. If the battery recovery price is too high and the remanufacturing cost will not be reduced, the battery after the cascade utilization is not competitive at the price compared with the new battery. One industry person pointed out.
The key to breaking the dilemma lies in the rational pricing of decommissioning batteries, standardization and modularization of battery design.
Lin Zhongjun believes that the current pricing mechanism for recycling is still not perfect. "The market lacks clear pricing principles. For example, how long the battery has been used and what kind of material system has not yet established a reasonable price range. Overall, the recovery price can not be too high, otherwise there will be no application scenario if the cost of remanufacturing is added. "
Lin Zhongjun pointed out that the remanufacturing cost per kilowatt hour is about 300-400 yuan. Take the lead-acid battery applied to the terminal as an example, the selling price per time (lead-acid battery) is about 600-700 yuan. On the contrary, the average recovery cost per kilowatt hour can not exceed 200-300 yuan.
Liu Yanlong believes that reasonable pricing requires a set of battery decommissioning data analysis systems and evaluation systems approved by the industry. "After the battery is decommissioned, it will evaluate the attenuation of the initial capacity, the speed of attenuation, how many years in different utilization scenes, and the value of the recovery of the elements. According to these indicators, we will determine the price of battery recycling.
Chen Haodong, a Panshi investment partner, believes that reducing the cost of power battery recovery also needs to promote standardization of battery products. "Product design, battery appearance, input and output voltage and other indicators in accordance with the specifications, the battery into a few varieties, easy to follow free combination of different modules for the cascade utilization."
"Now there are more than one hundred kinds of power batteries, and it is best to reduce them to ten kinds. The smaller the battery, the higher the automation level, the better rate, and the better use of the ladder. Zhao Xiaoyong thinks.
Battery modularization is considered to be a major way to reduce the cost of recycling. "Battery modularization is relatively more economical. For example, after decommissioning, batteries need not be disassembled, and can be reorganized through modules to make use of echelons. It is too costly to split the power battery pack into fragmented monomers. Liu Yanlong pointed out.
Perfect the recovery system
Chen Haodong believes that the standardization and modularization of the battery is not a single subject that can be promoted by a car enterprise, a battery manufacturer, a recycling enterprise, and a terminal using the enterprise.
"Starting from the beginning of battery design and production, we must prepare for the back-end reuse. For example, design modularization, dismantling can be used directly in energy storage or other fields; battery monomers are linked through screws instead of laser welding. Although laser welding is more solid, it is very troublesome when disassembling, "Zhao Xiaoyong said." the design of the battery pack was not taken into account at all, and now it is going to start from the source. "
"There has been such an initiative, but it takes time." Zhao Xiaoyong added, "it is not easy to require car battery design modularization. Because any change in the vehicle design platform is all the same, unless the new platform is built, but the cost is very high.
Many industry insiders stressed that in addition to the different types of enterprises, the policy should not be absent in the process of power battery recycling. Regulation should intervene in battery life cycle and avoid waste batteries entering informal channels.
Lin Zhongjun pointed out that the recycling of decommissioning power battery must be designed from the national strategic level, including the effective control of battery production, use, scrapping and extinction for the whole life cycle, so as to prevent the battery from running out of control in the process of cascade utilization and scrap treatment.
"To encode the battery, data exchange in each link can be traceable and monitored." Lin Zhongjun said, "by coding you can know which battery is produced from a battery factory, which car, which consumer, which node to be handed in when it is scrapped, which recycling enterprise, how to use the ladder, and where to carry out the price elements back and pick up."
This has been reflected at the policy level. In July 3rd, the Ministry of industry and information technology announced that in order to carry out the implementation of the "extension system of producer responsibility" and "the Interim Measures for the management of the recycling and utilization of power battery for new energy vehicles", the Ministry of industry and information has formulated the management of the traceability management of the recycling and utilization of the power battery for new energy vehicles. The Provisional Regulations shall be implemented as of August 1, 2018.
Zhao Xiaoyong believes that the recycling management system needs to be further improved. Now most power battery recycling follows the principle of high price, who is given high price, regardless of whether the recycling party has the ability to deal with the qualifications and technical ability, or even to cause the price to be carried out. To improve the recycling management system, it is necessary to establish a corresponding punishment mechanism, so that terminal consumers can transfer batteries to regular recycling enterprises and avoid the battery flowing into informal channels.
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