Original title: weighs! The threshold for the construction of Shanghai Metro is 3 times higher, and the new subway in these cities may be yellow.
No subway, no city. In modern urban competition, if a city has no subway, it will probably not be able to lift its head.
With the opening of the subway in a batch of cities in China, the construction of the subway is no longer a patent for the big cities of the first and second line. Even some three line cities have opened or planned to open the subway lines. At present, 43 urban rail transit construction plans have been approved in China. It is expected that in the end of 13th Five-Year, the mileage of the national urban rail transit will exceed 6000 kilometers.
"Subway is noisy, gold is worth two", it describes the driving effect of subway on urban economic development. However, the construction of the subway is a "money burning" project, the national development and Reform Commission spokesman said in an interview with the media, the average subway cost per kilometre of about 700 million yuan, the whole industry is the most lack of money.
Last year, there was a local subway project being halted. Speculation on the construction of the subway will be increased. Today, the news has finally fallen.
Yesterday (July 13th), the State Council issued the "suggestions for further strengthening the management of urban rail transit planning and construction" (hereinafter referred to as "the opinion"), which has raised the relevant economic indicators for the construction of the subway and light rail. Among them, the general public financial budgets and GDP of the city for the construction of the subway were adjusted to 30 billion yuan and 300 billion yuan, respectively, from 10 billion yuan and 100 billion yuan.
According to the new standards, in the 43 cities that have been approved by subway construction, there are many urban indicators that do not meet the requirements. These cities may apply for the new subway lines to be yellow.
The standard for construction is 3 times higher.
The new subway in these cities may be yellowing
With the approval power of urban rail transit in 2013 transferred from the national development and Reform Commission to the provincial government, urban rail transit construction has entered the "fast lane".
For the condition of Shen Jian subway, it was 15 years ago. According to the notice issued by the general office of the State Council on strengthening the construction and management of urban rapid rail transit (state office 81) in 2003, the requirements for the construction of Metro City are: the general budget of local finance is above 10 billion yuan, the GDP of the region is over 100 billion yuan, and the urban population is more than 3 million people.
Cities that meet the requirements also speed up the pace of the construction of Shanghai Metro. According to the "2017 urban rail transit industry statistics report" issued by the China Urban Rail Transit Association, China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) has opened urban rail transit and put into operation in 34 cities (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) by the end of 2017, and 165 lines have been opened and the length of the operation line is up to 5033 kilometers.
Seeing that the MTR plays a huge role in solving urban congestion, some problems can not be ignored. The opinion points out that, because of the huge investment and obvious public welfare characteristics of urban rail transit, some cities have insufficient understanding of the objective law of urban rail transit development, and the actual needs and their own strength are not in place. There are some problems, such as over planning, the construction scale is too centralized, and the implementation of funds is not in place, and so on. The debt burden is aggravated by the degree.
Zhao Jian, a professor at the Beijing Jiaotong University, told the daily economic news (nbdnews) that the low demands in the past were not in line with the actual situation in our country. First of all, repairing the subway is very expensive. Not only the construction cost is very high, but also the operation cost is very high, which requires higher local financial resources. Secondly, the subway is built only tens of kilometers to one hundred kilometers, because the distance is too short to bring large passenger flow. Subway and other rail transit network must be built to maximize the role. Only a short distance can not form a traffic network.
In the opinion issued, it is clear that the conditions for strict reporting should be strictly established. In addition to trams, urban rail transit system should be incorporated into the urban rail transit construction plan and fulfill the approval process. The subway is mainly in the key areas of the urban central city and the overall planning of the city. The general public finance budget for the urban construction of the metro should be over 30 billion yuan, the GDP is over 300 billion yuan, and the urban resident population is more than 3 million people.
Compared with the requirements for 2003, fiscal revenue and gross domestic product increased by 3 times. This also means that some cities that have met the requirements of the Shanghai Metro Construction in 2003 will be excluded. According to the new standards, reporters do not complete statistics. 43 cities that have been approved by subway construction:
Urumqi's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2017 was 274 billion 380 million yuan, not reaching the standard of 300 billion yuan.
In 2017, Lanzhou GDP was 252 billion 350 million yuan, not reaching the standard of 300 billion yuan, and the general public budget revenue and the urban resident population also did not meet the standards.
In 2017, the resident population of Hohhot was 3 million 114 thousand and 800, of which 2 million 151 thousand and 700 were urban residents, which failed to meet the requirements of over 3 million people in urban areas. At the same time, Hohhot's general public budget revenue does not conform to the new standard.
Baotou's general public budget revenue in 2017 was 13 billion 760 million yuan, which failed to meet the standard of more than 30 billion yuan. At the same time, the urban resident population in Baotou also failed to meet the new standards.
In 2017, the total population of Luoyang was 7 million 101 thousand and 400, of which 2 million 191 thousand and 600 of urban resident population did not meet the new standards.
In 2017, Nantong had a permanent population of 7 million 305 thousand, of whom 2 million 354 thousand were urban residents, which did not meet the new standards.
"This is reasonable." Wu Hongyang, deputy director of the urban transportation and rail transport research center of the Ministry of transportation and transportation, said to the reporter of the daily economic news (nbdnews) that the capital investment of the subway is very large, the construction cost and the operating cost are very high, especially in the later period of operation and maintenance. The debt burden of some places. Raising the threshold is in line with the actual situation, and it can also curb some local governments' blind pursuit of GDP and invest in subway construction.
Zhao Jian also said that some cities want to build the subway is in the pull of investment and the city's image, but ignore the local financial practical ability, so we should promote the construction of the subway threshold.
"Blind investment in the subway will increase the debt risk and bear a great burden on the local government." Wu Hongyang said, especially those cities with insufficient financial resources, blindly repairing the subway, the debt risk is even greater. In addition, some governments also have to borrow the next government to return the situation, which is not sustainable.
The "opinion" is also clear, strictly control the risk of local government debt, strictly prohibited through financing platform companies or in the name of PPP and other illegal disguised borrowing. The development and reform departments shall not approve (APPROVAL) for the urban rail transit projects that do not conform to the laws and regulations of debt financing or do not carry out the source of debt paying funds; and the new projects should be postponed for the cities which are listed in the scope of the local government debt risk early warning.
The construction and operation cost of the subway is high.
Local blood transfusions increase debt risk
The risk of increasing the burden of debt caused by the construction of the subway is due to the huge investment of the MTR.
Zhao Jian pointed out that subway construction costs and operating costs are very high. "If a city does not have a lot of traffic, it will lose money when it is built, and it will lose money when it runs. Because the money for construction has already been spent, subsidies for blood transfusion are needed when operating, which is very pressure on the financial pressure in some places.
Zhao Jian admitted that at present, a few cities such as Shanghai have said that a subway line does not require financial subsidies.
The reality is that some cities have a continuous supply of financial subsidies for subway operation. For example, the operation of Dongguan Metro Line 2 in May 2016 has reached 100 thousand passengers per day. But in 2018, Dongguan's finance still planned to arrange 1 billion 20 million yuan to support the operation of Metro Line 2.
Zhao Jian said that some cities are not strong enough to support continuous subsidies, which also increases the risk of local debt.
Earlier, in some places, the construction of the subway has been stopped urgently, and the threshold has been raised.
In November 2017, the Baotou subway was stopped for a hundred days. In January 3, 2018, the the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region National Conference on economic work of the Communist Party of China, the Party committee of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region stated that the Baotou subway project and the line 3, 4 and 5 of the Hohhot metro should be halted. The government of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region admits that there is a false increase in revenue. In addition, Baotou's fiscal revenue in 2017 dropped by nearly 5 compared with the same period last year.
The opinions are also clear, strengthening project construction and operation capital guarantee. The city government should establish a transparent and standardized long-term capital and investment mechanism to ensure that the construction funds of urban rail transit projects are in place in time and in full. Except for the project of the urban rail transit construction plan, the total investment in the total investment of the project should not be less than 40%, and all kinds of debt funds are strictly prohibited as the capital of the project. To strengthen the urban government's expenditure responsibility for the whole life cycle of urban rail transit projects and ensure the necessary operation and maintenance funds.
Wu Hongyang said that the subway can certainly ease traffic congestion, but in fact, in addition to the subway, buses, bicycles, walking and other green travel ways can also alleviate congestion, energy conservation and emission reduction. For many small and medium-sized cities, this is also one of the ways to develop. For some cities whose financial strength can not match subway investment, investment buses and so on are more cost-effective.
In addition to the improvement of the threshold for subway construction, the opinion also asks for the orderly development of the light rail. The general public financial budget of the city for the construction of light rail should be over 15 billion yuan, the GDP is over 150 billion yuan, and the urban resident population is more than 1 million 500 thousand people. The initial passenger transport intensity of the proposed subway and light rail lines is not less than 7 thousand per kilometre per day and 4 thousand people per kilometre per day. The long term passenger flow scale is more than 30 thousand person times and more than 10 thousand person times respectively.
Every reporter Zhou Chengcheng
Editor in responsibility: Zhang Yu
Waonews is a news media from China, with hundreds of translations, rolling updates China News, hoping to get the likes of foreign netizens