Source: Red Star News
Original title: from human pox vaccination to genetic engineering, China's vaccine development is silhouette.
In Chinese history, smallpox, measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever, plague, cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery and other viruses have been rampant for a time, killing people. But there is no way out. There are still many traces of intellectual activity in the process of fighting the disease with the ancients.
Such as the smallpox, Song Zhenzong, there were Mount Emei people who had planted pox for the son of the Prime Minister Wang Dan, that was to pick up pustules and scab from the patients who were infected with the smallpox or the mild symptoms of the smallpox, and then dry it, and then grinded the scab into the nose to inoculate the healthy people to prevent smallpox. However, the efficacy and safety of this vaccination method are very unstable.
In addition to smallpox, there are polio, tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, which are harmful, frequently occurring, high mortality infectious diseases. At the same time, there are cholera, plague, typhoid, encephalitis, etc. It can be imagined that in ancient times without vaccine prevention, these diseases left amazing numbers of deaths.
In a slightly academic way, the development of vaccine in China has gone through three stages. In ancient times, it was the primary stage of vaccine - "classical vaccine period", only two kinds of vaccinia vaccine and rabies vaccine. Followed by the "virus cultivation period", the third stage is "genetic engineering vaccine period".
It is not necessary for ordinary people to know what the characteristics of vaccines are in each period. We sort out the history. It is mainly to say that the development of vaccines in China is not easy. At each stage, scientists and researchers have spent countless efforts and costs. The past is like the wind, but we should know and remember those people and things.
Early establishment and deployment of institutions
In 1917, the plague occurred in Suiyuan (part of the present the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region). Because the epidemic area was closely attached to the Zhangjiakou region of Hebei Province, it was a great threat to Beijing. In 1919, the central epidemic prevention department (the predecessor of the Beijing Biological Research Institute) was established at the Tiantan in Beijing. This is the first biological product research and production unit in China. It is also the earliest disease control and health and epidemic prevention agency in China.
In 1940s, Jiefang District, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, established the Changchun health technology plant, the Liaoji military region health technology plant, the Dalian Health Research Institute and the North China military area epidemic prevention department. In the arduous years of the war of resistance against Japan and the war of liberation, we insisted on producing vaccines, mycophenoids and antivirus in the war of resistance against Japan and the war of liberation. Biological products such as vegetarian and immune sera.
After the founding of new China, through institutional adjustment, the Institute of biological products in Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan, Changchun, Lanzhou and Chengdu, under the leadership of the Ministry of health, was established in 6 central cities of the 6 major administrative regions of the country at that time. In addition, a Chinese Medical Department of major research and production of poliomyelitis vaccine was established. The Institute of medical biology of Kunming, the Institute of biological products, is both a production unit of biologicals and a product R & D institution, and is also responsible for guiding the technical guidance of the planned immunization in the region.
Taking the establishment of the Chengdu biologics Institute as an example, in 1956, the Ministry of health, approved by the State Council, decided to adjust the national biological products institutions, and incorporated part of the Dalian Biological Products Institute, the Kunming biologics Institute, the southwest BCG manufacturing research and the Shanghai biologicals Research Institute into Chengdu biology. Product research institute. By 1957, the relocation work was completed. The products were put into trial production in 1958 and formally produced.
The Chengdu Institute of Biological Products, located at the Baojiang Bridge in Liulichang, Chengdu, was a very remote place 60 years ago.
At that time, research personnel were not all from Chengdu. According to the public information, the total number of staff moved to Chengdu: 321 in Dalian, 87 in Kunming, 22 in Shanghai, 12 in BCG, and 102 with the preparatory office, and the number of staff is 544. For the public health and immunization of new China, they came to Chengdu with their families and left their homes. In this desolate place, they started research and production from scratch.
According to the book of "vaccine science" published in 2004, for half a century, our country's bioproduct backbone enterprises produce a variety of bacterial vaccines, virus vaccines, toxins, toxoid, antitoxin, immunology, blood products and in vivo and in vitro diagnostic reagents in more than 140 kinds, of which various vaccines and Immunology are clear. The annual production capacity of the products is nearly 1 billion people.
In 1980s, China's biologics industry has entered a period of rapid development. Under the guidance of the policy of "reform and opening up", the state vigorously advocates the development of biotechnology, the local government has the strong support, the community has actively invested, and the biological products and biotechnology industry have developed rapidly. The production enterprise of biologicals has broken through the original model that the Ministry of health directly belongs to the 6 major graduate institutes. It has built more than 200 new biologics, biotechnology manufacturers or companies all over the country, including joint ventures, foreign capital holdings, and joint-stock and private enterprises. The varieties, dosage forms and specifications of the products have been greatly increased.
Meanwhile, the research and development of new vaccines in China has made considerable progress.
China was first isolated from measles to pathogens in 1958, that is to begin with the development of measles vaccine. Our country concentrated on studying the attenuated vaccine. It was successfully developed in 1965. It was only two years later than the Measles Vaccine live approved by the United States; the live vaccine of encephalitis B was studied and evaluated by new drugs in 1990. The experiment and large area epidemiological observation showed that the vaccine was genetically stable, the immune effect was good, the development of the live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine was successful, and it was approved in 1992.
The aid of his country during the difficult period
In 70s and 80s twentieth Century, China has made some progress in the prevention of health immunization, but the actual situation at that time was not smooth, it was far more complicated than we imagined. In this part of the public health immune system, there was still much room for improvement in vaccine efficiency, vaccine preservation, transportation, vaccine safety, and immunization monitoring.
In the 1980s, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in cooperation with the Ministry of Health of China, accelerated the progress of comprehensive vaccination for children under the age of six. Many vaccines need to be kept in cold storage, but in the remote areas of China, there was a general lack of refrigerating equipment. Therefore, UNICEF helped the Ministry of health set up a vaccine cold storage and transportation system, that is, "cold chain system".
Japan also helped vaccine in China and made contributions to China's public immunization.
According to the March 20, 2001 people's daily / overseas edition, the WHO's West Pacific region has been declared a poliomyelitis free area in 2000, but the polio virus is still a new challenge for countries in the Western Pacific region before the global polio eradication target has not been realized. There are still some weak immunization areas in China, and the risk of poliovirus entry is always there. In order to help China to strengthen polio immune activities, the Japanese government has provided 2 billion 200 million yen assistance to China by sending experts, receiving students and providing equipment through the Japan cooperation mission for 10 years. Zhu Qingsheng, Vice Minister of the Ministry of health, said that the Japanese government's support for polio eradication in China over the past 10 years has played an important role in accelerating China's realization of the eradication of polio targets.
The king of the vaccine in silence
Behind the cause of the vaccine, many scientists have devoted their life to the blood, they are in silent noise, the development of the vaccine for our country and the type of expansion, dedication, admiration, such as soup flying van, Gu Fangzhou and so on.
Tang Feifan, known as "Pasteur of the East", has developed China's own penicillin. He introduced the ether sterilization method to eliminate smallpox 16 years earlier than the world. He first separated Chlamydia trachomatis, the first and only Chinese man to discover important pathogens in the world.
After Tang Feifan, who had been enrolled at the Harvard University medical school, went home in Shanghai, he began to study the viruses such as trachoma, mumps, epidemic meningitis and influenza. After the battle of Shanghai, Shanghai and Nanjing fell in succession. Tang Fei Fan returned to Changsha with his wife and children. At this time, the central epidemic prevention department in Beiping was relocated to Changsha to restructure.
During the hard war of resistance, Tang Fei Fan, by virtue of his study, produced its own rabies vaccine, rash Typhoid Vaccine, vaccinia vaccine, and saved countless soldiers and civilians who had been infected with the virus. Tang Fei Fan also became the pronoun of rapid development of vaccine. He not only developed the first Chinese rabies vaccine, vaccinia vaccine and penicillin, but also studied the pathogens of trachoma in the arduous war environment, and experimented with their own eyes, demonstrating that Chlamydia trachomatis is the culprit for thousands of years of human blindness.
Behind the vaccine business in China, another outstanding scientist is Gu Fangzhou.
According to public information, in 1955 in Nantong, Jiangsu, the first poliomyelitis pandemic occurred in the history of our country. 1680 cases were found and the mortality rate was 27.75%. After that, there were cases in Shanghai, Ji'nan and Qingdao.
Poliomyelitis, commonly known as poliomyelitis, has been called "the biggest killer of children's life and health". Poliovirus is highly infectious, and humans are the only natural hosts, easy to cause life-long disability, and even life-threatening. Because no medicine is available, polio can only be prevented by vaccination.
In March 1959, the Ministry of Health decided to send Gu Fangzhou and others to the Soviet Union to investigate the production process of polio vaccine. At that time, poliomyelitis vaccine was developed in the United States and the Soviet Union, and the vaccine was divided into two kinds: inactivated vaccine and live attenuated vaccine. However, inactivated vaccines are costly and face the predicament of being unable to produce in China. The cost of live attenuated vaccines is only one thousandth of that of inactivated vaccines.
At that time, the country had just been established, the economic level was backward, the standard of living was not very high, Gu Fangzhou bold proposal, for polio, live attenuated vaccine. This decision has played a key role in the research direction of Chinese poliomyelitis, including the development of the latter.
In December 1959, by the approval of the Ministry of health, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the Beijing Institute of biological products established a collaborative team to study the polio live vaccine, taking Fang Zhou as the head of the research and carrying out the research of poliomyelitis vaccine. After experiencing animal experiments and entering clinical trials, it was necessary to observe the safety of the vaccine to the human body. At that time, Fang almost did not hesitate to decide with his colleagues and tried to try the vaccine. Then, to prove that the vaccine was safe for children, Gu gave his 5-year-old son the live polio vaccine he had developed, hiding from his wife.
It is said that among older researchers, this phenomenon is widespread, that is, the first vaccine developed for their own. In 2016, the inactivated EV71 vaccine for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was developed and marketed in China. The first test was still carried out on Li Qihan, the current director of the Institute of Biology, which developed the vaccine.
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