Original title: "the world's most" Three Gorges Project "grievances", what do you think?
The most beautiful part of the Yangtze River is generally recognized as the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, starting from Baidicheng in Fengjie, Chongqing, runs nearly 200 kilometers from Qutang Gorge, Wuxia Gorge and Xiling Gorge to Nanjingguan in Yichang, Hubei Province. The next three gorges is really a journey of "my heart".
Before boarding the ship, the brain fill the Three Gorges, such as: the cross straits peaks, the river narrow twists and turns, the river beach reefs, flow turbulent turbulence; also have peak peaks, bright and beautiful, gorge with the mountain, twists and turns... After boarding, we found that our rhythm was during the day and at night. In the thick night, the river is drifting down, and the scenery on both sides must be captured by feeling. But the long and long wandering feeling on the big river always hangs over me for a long time.
The boat boarded a wharf in Wushan, Chongqing last night. When it woke up, the boat had already berthed at Yichang wharf. It was really "a light boat has passed the Wanzhong Mountain". Today, we will visit the world's largest water control project, the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River.
At 8:30 in the morning, the boat changed to the dam and the bus drove to the center of the crest. From the front of the fence, a vast area of Pinghu is seen. In the dog days, the upstream water is not big, so there is no grand flood scene. At the foot of the low mountain in the distance is the newly built Zigui city. The new buildings are built on the mountain by the mountain and the river.
In the upper and lower reaches of the dam, there are more than 10 such emigrant new towns and thousands of rural emigrants. Over the past 10 years, more than 100 million immigrants have written a song of eternal dedication. It was their unprecedented great move in the world that led to the smooth progress of the Three Gorges Project.
On the opposite side of the dam is a Qu Yuan Temple. Qu Zi was also a senior emigrant of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, and Gezhouba Dam was relocated at that time. The present Qu Yuan Temple faces the dam, which is a large scenic area of 500 mu. It is known as "the cultural tourism area of Qu Yuan's hometown".
To describe the Three Gorges Dam at foot, the word "spectacular" is the most appropriate word. Geologists have studied that about 40 million years ago, the Yangtze River was two rivers, one eastward and one westward, separated by a Wushan mountain. The uplift of the Himalaya Range made the Yangtze River in the West no way to go, and to the East, it rushed out of a Three Gorges.
The Yangtze River, which has been rolling eastward for 40 million years, is intercepted by the gravity of the dam at our feet. The moment that the world's largest concrete gravity dam has stepped on its feet, the shock is more proud: how much wisdom is there in the world's largest water project?
The head of the Three Gorges Project Management Bureau, who is in charge of the field explanation, tells us that standing around here is "the world's most": under the dam, it is the largest flood discharge gate in the world, and the left bank of the dam is the world's largest series of inland river locks with the highest total water head, and the global scale at the left end of the dam. The biggest and most difficult ship lift...
The construction of the Three Gorges project lasted for more than ten years. The Three Gorges ship lift, known as the "work of the government" of the Three Gorges project, was put into trial operation in 2016. The passenger ship we took was passed through the dam by the Three Gorges ship lift. Through the Three Gorges ship lift, it will take about 10 minutes to complete the vertical rise or fall of the 40 storey building. The time of ship crossing the dam was shortened from 3.5 hours to 40 minutes, which was summed up as "big boat climbing stairs, small boat taking elevators".
Standing on this dam, I cannot help thinking. When the Three Gorges project is impounded, what kind of mood do people here have? Is it the memory of old memories or the anticipation of the new future? But after the greatest changes in human history that can occur by changing nature, that once magical piece of land is now different.
In 1956, Chairman Mao toured down to Wuhan to inspect the Yangtze River bridge construction project. In the early June, he swam across the Yangtze River for three consecutive times.
In this year, Chairman Mao was 64 years old. He saw a great achievement in the construction of new China. The life of the people has been greatly improved, and the spirit of the whole nation is new.
"Water melody, swimming" is the old people's mood. "A bridge between the north and south of the frame, the cut of the sky changed the way. More erect the West River wall, cut off Wushan clouds and rain, Gao gorge out of Pinghu. Chairman Mao said, now that a bridge is flying north and south, the natural cutting will soon become a thoroughfare. In the future, we also need to build dams in the Three Gorges Dam to store water and generate electricity, so that turbulent Canyon will become a calm high lake.
Making the Three Gorges is not only Chairman Mao's wish. As early as a century ago, Mr. Sun Yat-sen first put forward the idea of building dams in the Yangtze River in his General Plan for the Founding of the People, hoping to make use of the Yangtze River water conservancy to enrich the country and strengthen the people. After the founding of New China, successive Party and state leaders have left their footprints on the Yangtze River and the Sandouping Dam site (the dam site of the Three Gorges Dam). After long and repeated scientific argumentation, the main project of the Three Gorges project finally started in 1994. In 2006, the main project of the Three Gorges project was completed one year ahead of schedule.
The experts of the Three Gorges Project Management Bureau told us that the Three Gorges project has three major benefits, namely, flood control, power generation and shipping, among which flood control is recognized as the most important benefit of the Three Gorges Project.
Flood control: the Three Gorges project is a key key project in the comprehensive flood control system of the Yangtze River. It has 22 billion 150 million cubic meters of flood control capacity, which protects the safety of 1 million 500 thousand hectares of land and 15 million of the population in Jianghan Plain, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which is the biggest ecological environment change.
Power generation: the Three Gorges power station can get 88 billion 200 million degrees of clean electricity every year without consuming one cubic meter of water and discharging a cubic harmful gas. It can replace 28 million tons of coal and produce obvious emission reduction benefits.
Shipping: the Three Gorges reservoir has fundamentally changed the Three Gorges waterway from Chongqing to Yichang after the storage of the Three Gorges reservoir. 3000 tons of ships are unimpeded, completely changing the conditions of the sea out of the southwest, and the Three Gorges reservoir can give full play to the ecological benefits of drought and water replenishment through reasonable water resource scheduling.
Lu Youmei, a member of the Chinese Academy of engineering, who participated and organized the Three Gorges project, was awarded the world engineering organization Federation (WFEO) project achievement award for his outstanding achievements in the field of dam construction. He once said: "the Three Gorges project has become an indispensable support for the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt, which has greatly improved the space for the sustainable development of the present and the future."
Is the Wenchuan earthquake, Chongqing drought and rainstorm caused by the Three Gorges Project? What is the relationship between the drought and flood in Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake and the backwater of the Yangtze Estuary and the Three Gorges Project? Why is there a Three Gorges Project? In the flood season of 2016, the largest flood disaster occurred in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River since 1998?
This is a typical challenge to the Three Gorges Project from all walks of life in recent years. In response to these questions, seismologists, meteorologists and water conservancy scientists have studied and made scientific responses one by one.
Like all human activities on earth, the Three Gorges Project will inevitably change the original ecological environment. For example, the Three Gorges project has changed the spatial and temporal distribution of the water resources of the Yangtze River and the existing water state, and has a certain influence on the survival of some fish stocks. After the formation of the Three Gorges and its upstream cascade reservoirs, the sediment amount in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has been greatly reduced, and the drainage of the water has a scouring effect on the lower reaches of the river, resulting in the collapse of some banks.
To these controversies, academician Lu Youmei thinks, "how to evaluate this phenomenon is essentially a question of world outlook". He said that the original meaning of ecology is the interdependent state of all creatures in nature. It is a dynamic balance process, and there is no so-called "original ecology" and an unchangeable ecological balance. "The ecology depends on the environment, the change of the environment will inevitably produce new ecology, and the standard of the environment is the sustainable development of mankind".
Zhang Zhihui, the deputy research fellow of the Institute of the history of natural sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a disciple of Lu Youmei. In a recent speech, she was "disorderly" for the Three Gorges Dam: the Three Gorges dam took too many of the world's most important projects, but also suffered the most injustice. "Our dam project has a positive and negative effect," she said. "All the projects were like this. At the beginning of the argument, we had noticed and put forward the measures. The problem is the problem, we will not escape cover-up, but will face difficulties and thoroughly solve; but rumors and slander really let the Three Gorges bear too much grievance.
Today's Three Gorges dam has put more emphasis on the protection of the Yangtze River's ecological environment. There are many high level scientists in the Three Gorges group, studying the artificial breeding of the Chinese sturgeon and the releasing of the Yangtze River all the year round. Scientific monitoring has found that this fully artificially reproduced offspring of Chinese sturgeon have migratory characteristics of wild Chinese sturgeon, so the survival of this species is no longer a problem. Scientists hope that they can return to nature at an early date.
Throughout the interview, I heard an impressive sentence: "We are most grateful to those who oppose the Three Gorges Project." In the face of questions and problems, the builders of the Three Gorges need to continue to deepen their research and explore various technical and engineering measures to avoid and reduce the adverse effects of the Three Gorges Project and bring the benefits to the maximum.
Various discussions on the Three Gorges Project will certainly exist in the near future. In this regard, the attitude of academician Lu Youmei is that man's exploration of natural laws is endless. In the production practice, we constantly enrich our understanding and use it scientifically. Mankind will certainly be able to do something in the historical process of transforming nature.
Responsible editor: Gui Qiang
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