Original title: the most significant change in 37 years, "family planning" four words disappear from here.
Family planning departments have been revoked. Will family planning be withdrawn from the stage of history?
At present, China's population situation is facing many challenges: the number of women of childbearing age is decreasing year by year, and the degree of aging with fewer children is increasing.
In early August, an article in the Overseas Edition of the People's Daily entitled "Birth is a family affair and a state affair" aroused widespread discussion.
Family planning is no longer retained in the draft divisions of the Civil Code submitted for consideration at the end of August.
On the evening of September 10, the National Institutional Development Network of China announced the Regulations on the Functional Allocation, Internal Institutions and Staffing of the National Health and Health Commission (the "Three Directions" Program). According to the regulations, the National Health and Health Commission (hereinafter referred to as the "National Health and Health Commission") is a component of the State Council, which is at the ministerial level and has 21 internal institutions.
The Daily Economic Journalist noticed that the three internal family planning-related organizations set up by the former State Health and Family Planning Commission, namely, the Grass-roots Department of Family Planning, the Department of Family Planning Development and the Department of Family Planning Services and Management for Migrant Population, had been abolished and turned into the new Department of Population Monitoring and Family Development. In addition, the elderly health division, occupational health division and Health Bureau are newly established agencies.
Did family planning really say goodbye to the stage of history?
From "adhering to the basic national policy of family planning"
To "improve family planning policy"
On March 13 this year, the State Council submitted to the NPC for deliberation the State Council's Institutional Reform Plan, pointing out that "the State Health and Family Planning Commission will no longer be retained, and the State Health Commission will be established." In March 17th, the plan was adopted by the thirteen session of the National People's Congress. According to the Notes on the Institutional Reform Program of the State Council, the responsibilities of the National Health and Health Commission include: to be responsible for family planning management and services, and to formulate responses to population ageing.
This is the first time since 1981 that the Department of State Council did not have the name of family planning.
From the earliest National Family Planning Commission to today's National Health Council, it has been 37 years.
In September 1980, the Third Session of the Fifth National People's Congress explicitly advocated "having only one child." Soon after, the Central Committee of the Party issued an open letter to Party members and League members advocating this policy, which marked the formal introduction and full implementation of China's one child policy.
In 1981, the State Family Planning Commission was established. In 1982, the twelve Party's family planning policy was set as the basic national policy.
By the end of 2001, the law on population and family planning was adopted and implemented in 2002. In accordance with the law, all localities have formulated the policy of "double independence and two child", and have been pushed forward in the whole country.
By 2013, when the National Health and Family Planning Commission was set up, its responsibilities included "adhering to the basic national policy of family planning and improving the family planning policy". In November 2013 and the third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, we decided to start the implementation of the "two child alone" policy.
In October 2015, the Fifth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee decided to adhere to the basic state policy of family planning and implement the policy of one couple having two children in an all-round way.
However, in the Regulations on the Functional Allocation, Institutions and Staffing of the National Health and Health Commission issued yesterday (10 September), the main responsibilities of the National Health and Health Commission are described as follows:
Responsible for family planning management and services, carry out population monitoring and early warning, study and put forward population and family development related policy recommendations, improve family planning policy.
The Department of population monitoring and family development is entrusted with important responsibilities.
Lu Jiehua, a professor in the Department of Sociology at Peking University, told the Daily Economic Journalist that there really is no word for family planning at the name level in the built-in institutions. However, the new population monitoring and family development division is also responsible for family planning related businesses.
According to the plan, the newly established Department of Population Monitoring and Family Development should undertake the work of population monitoring and early warning and put forward relevant policies and suggestions on population and family development, improve the fertility policy and organize its implementation, and establish and improve the special family planning assistance system.
Lu said that in the past, family planning was more about quantity control. At present, the Department of Population Monitoring and Family Development is more important to formulate policies on fertility and family development. In addition, family planning itself has some historical problems to be solved, such as the one-child pension allowance, the support policy of the separated family and so on, which need to be properly solved by the new Department of Population Monitoring and Family Development.
According to the new population data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, China's birth population was 17.23 million in 2017, a decrease of 630,000 from 2016. The birth rate is 12.43 per thousand, which is 0.52 per cent lower than in 2016. On September 5, the National Bureau of Statistics announced that it would organize and carry out an annual sampling survey of population changes nationwide at the time of November 1 this year.
At the same time, many places have also felt the pressure of population, after a wave of "robbery war", many introduced policies to encourage fertility.
Previously, the article "Birth is a household and a state affair" pointed out that China's demographic dividend has basically been used up, aging, rising labor costs, social security pressures... To solve these problems, we should not only rely on family consciousness, but also set up a more complete system and mechanism. We need to put the policy into practice rather than spend it on hunger.
Lu said that in the context of the overall liberalization of the second child, improving and implementing the supporting measures to encourage fertility is also an important responsibility entrusted to the Department of Population Monitoring and Family Development.
New aging health division to tackle ageing problem
Population pressure is two aspects. Besides the pressure of the new population, there is also the pressure of aging population.
As a result, the elderly health division has been added to the National Health Service Commission.
Behind this new organization is the aging problem that our country needs to pay attention to. It is generally believed that the population aged 60 and over accounts for 10% of the total population, which means entering an aging society.
In 1999, China's population over 60 years old accounted for 10% of the total population, marking China's entry into an aging society. In just 18 years, this figure reached 17.3% at the end of 2017.
According to the 13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of the National Aging Career and the Construction of the Old-age Pension System issued by the State Council, it is expected that by 2020 the proportion of the elderly over 60 years old in the total population will reach about 17.8%, and that of the elderly living alone and empty-nesting will increase to about 118 million people.
How to achieve healthy aging has become an urgent problem. Data show that there are nearly 150 million elderly people with chronic diseases in China, and 37.5 million disabled and partially disabled elderly people.
Surveillance data show that chronic diseases account for 91.2% of the deaths of the elderly in China. Cerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumors, heart diseases, diabetes, hypertension and respiratory diseases are the major causes of life expectancy loss in the elderly over 60 years old. Mental disorders have also entered the top ten causes of death in the elderly.
In the "three set" program, the elderly health division is responsible for
To formulate and coordinate policies and measures to cope with aging.
To organize the formulation of policies, standards and norms for the integration of health care and rehabilitation, and to establish and improve the health service system for the elderly.
Undertake the specific work of the National Commission on ageing.
Mr. Lu told the Daily Economic Journalist that the three functions of the Department of Ageing and Health are very important. It will take on the responsibility of formulating policy designs for future ageing, building a healthy public policy and social environment for ageing, and establishing an integrated public health service system for ageing. "The most important thing is to face the future of aging, to formulate the top-level design for the future of aging, to provide health services suitable for the whole reproductive cycle."
Cui Li, deputy director of the National Health and Health Commission, told a daily economic news reporter during the two sessions this year that the function of the National Committee on Ageing should be assumed by the National Health and Health Commission. It is also in order to strengthen the related work of the population and attach special importance to the new challenges of population problems brought about by ageing in order to promote the people of our country. The long-term balanced development of the mouth will actively promote healthy aging.
Editor in chief: Huo Yuang
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