Original title: let the white paper tell the world (swordsman Island)
Mid Autumn Festival, September 24th.
At 0:01 a.m. on the same day, the U.S. government imposed a 10% tariff on about $200 billion of Chinese goods. At the same time, the Chinese government imposed a 5% - 10% unequal tariff on imports of about 60 billion US dollars originating in the United States.
At 13:00 p.m. that same day, the Information Office of the State Council of China issued a white paper entitled "Facts on Sino-US Economic and Trade Frictions and China's Position", aimed at "clarifying the facts of Sino-US economic and trade relations, clarifying China's policy stance on Sino-US economic and trade frictions and promoting a rational solution to the problem".
As we all know, the white paper is an internationally recognized official official document, with white cover binding. The latest 36,000-word official document is also the most detailed and highly relevant one issued by China since the United States provoked the trade war.
So what does this tens of thousands of words white paper say?
Since the first white paper was released in 1991, China has published more than 90 white papers by 2017. Since the beginning of Sino-US trade frictions, China issued a White Paper on China and the World Trade Organization in June this year, stressing that China will always fulfill its WTO accession commitments, and reiterating China's principled position and policy propositions in participating in the construction of the multilateral trading system.
Today's white paper, the first big point is that this is the first time that Chinese officials made a special issue on Sino-US trade frictions.
Apart from the preface, the White Paper lists a large number of facts about Sino-US economic and trade relations, directly refutes the "trade protectionism" and "trade hegemony" of the US government, and expounds the harm of this practice to world economic development. Of course, it also shows China's position.
In other words, in the face of the "largest ever" tariff increase in the United States, China responds to the "reasons for war" of the United States in the form of official documents, data and examples.
For example, the opening of the white paper is a qualitative analysis of Sino US economic and trade relations. First of all, China is the largest developing country in the world, and the United States is the largest developed country in the world. Second, history should clarify: in the past 40 years, Sino-US economic and trade exchanges have overcome many obstacles and formed a "mutually beneficial and win-win relationship with highly complementary structure and deep integration of interests", which has also become a win-win relationship between China and the United States. The ballast and thruster of relationship.
However, pay attention to this "but": since 2017, especially under the guidance of the "US priority" principle, the United States has abandoned the basic norms of international exchanges such as mutual respect, equal consultation and adopted unilateralism, protectionism and economic hegemony, which has led to the continuous escalation of Sino-US economic and trade frictions in a short period of time and has made Sino-US economic and trade frictions. The economic and trade relations have been greatly damaged, and the multilateral trading system and free trade principles have been seriously threatened.
From the national orientation of China and the United States, to the economic and trade history of China and the United States, to review the situation since 2017. It is clear who is responsible for the status quo of "three decades of hard work and one night before liberation".
This principle is known to all in China, but the White Paper is meant to convey it to the world in a clear and unambiguous way, so as to clarify public opinion and face it squarely. A press conference will be held on the morning of 25, and many foreign media reporters will be there.
The second big thing about the white paper is that, since it is so large, we might as well use a little more facts and data to tear and tear the world in front of China to see if there is any justification for the United States to button the hat to China.
Everyone knows that the reasons for the United States to initiate a trade war are nothing more than those written by Navarro in his "Lethal China" which is not recognized by economic circles, such as "trade with China, the United States has suffered losses", "China has made mandatory technology transfers" and so on. Finally, the United States cites the demand for "fair trade". Declare tariffs on Chinese goods.
Then, is the United States "suffering"? The white paper data show that US exports to China are growing faster than their exports to the world. In 2017, U.S. exports to China totaled $129.89 billion, up 57.7% from the $19.18 billion China joined the WTO in 2001, much higher than the growth rate of U.S. exports to the world.
Has China robbed Americans of their jobs? The white paper disclosed such a group of data:
According to the U.S. -China Trade Commission, U.S. exports to China and bidirectional investment in China and the United States supported 2.6 million jobs in the United States in 2015. Among them, China's investment in the United States spread across 46 states, creating more than 140,000 jobs in the United States, mostly in manufacturing.
In addition, Chinese-made products have helped to lower prices in the United States and save more money for American households. According to the report, a study by the National Council on Trade between the United States and China shows that in 2015, trade between China and the United States saved an average of $850 per household annually, equivalent to 1.5 per cent of household income.
To be honest, all economic principles acknowledge the fundamental fact that trade is good for both sides, especially when made in China, which is cheap and good, not only brings tangible benefits to consumers around the world, including Americans, but also helps to reduce their inflation rates.
Is China's mandatory technology transfer established? White paper data show that since 2000, China's investment in scientific research has increased at a rate of 20% a year; in 2017, China's scientific research funds reached 1.76 trillion yuan, ranking second in the world; before the introduction of the U.S. tariff policy several hearings, attended by U.S. enterprises have repeatedly said, "We have not in China." Subjected to compulsory technology transfer ".
Look at the patent again. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) report shows that in 2016 China's global patent, trademark and industrial design applications reached a new high. Among them, the number of patent applications accepted by China exceeds the total number of patent offices in the United States, Japan, South Korea and Europe, ranking first in the world, and the increment of patent applications by China accounts for 98% of the total global increment.
In other words, under the so-called "mandatory technology transfer" doctrine, the fact that the United States is actually a beneficiary is concealed. According to a report by the Peterson Institute for International Economics, a US think tank, licensing fees and fees for the use of foreign technology in China have soared, reaching nearly $28.6 billion in 2017, nearly four times higher than in the past decade. According to Chinese statistics, the United States is China's largest source of copyright imports. China's IPR fees to the United States increased from $3.46 billion in 2011 to $7.2 billion in 2017, doubling in six years. In 2017, China accounted for 1/4 of the total amount of China's external payment IPR.
The third point of view of the White Paper is that it not only refutes the fact that the United States has provoked a trade war, but goes further: it lists in detail the discrimination against other countries'products, the abuse of "national security review", the provision of large subsidies to distort market competition, the use of large numbers of non-tariff barriers, and the abuse of trade remedies. The problem.
To tell you the truth, it is not easy for foreign goods to enter the United States. According to a report by the United Nations Trade and Development Organization (UNCTAD) on June 29, 2018, 54 sanitary and phytosanitary measures are required for a tree to be imported into the United States. On such issues as discrimination, censorship and barriers, China's "success rate" is always astonishing. For example, from 2013 to 2015, the Foreign Investment Commission of the United States examined 387 transactions in 39 economies, 74 of which were in China, accounting for 19%, ranking first among the "reviewed countries" for three consecutive years.
For example, according to the July 17, 2008 data, the United States is still in force 44 "dual-anti" (anti-dumping, anti-subsidy) measures, 58% of which were taken after the 2008 financial crisis, the main target of the economy is China, the European Union and Japan.
What is more alarming to the world is the impact of what the United States has done on the multilateral trading system and the world economic system. As pointed out in the white paper, the United States has never forgotten the old routine of "internationalizing domestic issues and politicizing economic and trade issues". For example, the United States blames international trade for unemployment caused by domestic policy and institutional deficiencies, and shifts domestic conflicts to other countries. Because China is the largest source of trade deficit in the United States, it has become the main victim.
But the truth is contrary to what the U.S. says: U.N. data show that Sino-U.S. trade between 2001 and 2017 increased 4.41 times, and in the process, the U.S. unemployment rate dropped from 5.7% to 4.1%.
In fact, protectionist tendencies and measures in the United States are not unique today. They have been around for years. However, in the past few decades, policy makers on both sides have focused on economic and trade, the most stable and concerned bilateral relationship, and have been solving problems, seeking common ground and reserving differences in a pragmatic manner.
In 2015, former US Treasury Secretary Paulson expressed his concern in the book published.
"The stagnation of the U.S. economy, the widening gap between the rich and the poor, coupled with U.S. companies'concerns about'unfair Competition' in the Chinese market, incited the flames of protectionism. Too many Americans are beginning to accept the wrong and dangerous view that the United States has not benefited from international trade, including bilateral trade with China. This view is worrying on many levels, most notably trade and investment, which are the closest economic ties between our two countries, but are being questioned and attacked.
Indeed, as the U.S. government is doing now, the damage to bilateral relations can be imagined by directly dealing with ballast and stabilizers.
The fourth major theme of the white paper is China's confidence and determination to do its job well. The "eight firm" positions are consistent, clear and resolute:
China firmly safeguards national dignity and core interests, China firmly promotes the healthy development of Sino-US economic and trade relations, China firmly safeguards and promotes the reform and improvement of the multilateral trading system, China firmly protects property rights and intellectual property rights, China firmly protects the legitimate rights and interests of foreign businessmen in China, China firmly deepens reform, expands opening up, China firmly We will firmly promote mutually beneficial and win-win cooperation with other developed countries and developing countries, and China will firmly promote the construction of a community of human destiny.
"Safeguarding national dignity and core interests" means that you have to fight and I will accompany you. China can negotiate, but it can't accept the irrationality of unilateralism and bullying "holding a gun to the head and forcing a talk". Similarly, our challenge is to "promote the healthy development of Sino US economic and trade relations". This healthy development means that it doesn't matter if there are differences. We should talk about them in the framework of negotiations, WTO and bilateral cooperation. This is also the maintenance of the multilateral trading system, which is, after all, the institutional basis of today's globalized markets.
The latter "firmness" calls for the world market to do its part: China will protect the rights and interests of foreign businessmen in China, protect property rights and intellectual property rights, deepen reform and opening-up, and at the same time, we will work with any country that wishes to develop equal cooperation and trade with China. Keep on going, not closing the door. The trend of the world will not be shifted by individual will, more people, more
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