Original title: export growth 914 times, import growth 664 times
In 1978, China opened the great course of reform and opening up. In the past 40 years, foreign trade has continuously opened up a new pattern and achieved a historic leap.
The total volume of trade in goods increased rapidly.
The scale of import and export of goods has developed by leaps and bounds. From 1978 to 2017, China's total import and export volume increased 782 times from 35.5 billion yuan to 27.8 trillion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 18.6%. Among them, the total export volume increased 914 times from 16.8 billion yuan to 15.3 trillion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 19.1%; the total import volume increased 664 times from 18.7 billion yuan to 12.5 trillion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 18.1%.
Trade in goods accounted for a substantial increase in the world's share. At the beginning of reform and opening up, China's import and export of goods accounted for only 0.8% of the international market share, ranking 29th in the global trade in goods. In 2017, China's import and export share of the world's 11.5%, goods trade back to the world's first, including 12.8% of exports, imports accounted for 10.2%.
The structure of trade in goods is constantly optimized.
The mode of trade is more reasonable. In the early years of reform and opening up, the trade methods such as incoming processing and incoming processing greatly promoted the development of foreign trade. The proportion of processing trade in the total import and export value increased from 6% in 1981 to 53.4% in 1998. Since then, with the adjustment of the structure of trade in goods and the promotion of transformation and upgrading, the proportion of processing trade began to decline slowly. Processing trade fell from 34.8% in 2012 to 29% in 2017, while general trade rose from 52% in 2012 to 56.3% in 2017.
The product structure is constantly optimized. Exports of primary products accounted for 53.5% in 1978, and exports of manufactured goods accounted for 46.5%; in 2017, the proportion of manufactured goods and primary products accounted for 94.8% and 5.2% respectively. From 1985 to 2017, China's export of mechanical and electrical products increased from 1.68 billion US dollars to 1.3 trillion US dollars, China has maintained the status of the world's largest exporter of mechanical and electrical products for nine consecutive years. Over the same period, the proportion of high-tech products in China's exports increased from 2% to 28.8%.
The trade market is becoming more diversified.
From 1978 to 2017, China's trade partners have developed from more than 40 to 231 countries and regions, including the European Union, the United States, ASEAN, Japan and other major trading partners. China's trade with emerging markets and developing countries continues to grow rapidly. Since 2011, ASEAN has surpassed Japan as China's third largest trading partner. Its share in China's export market has increased from 7% in 2000 to 12.5% in 2017.
In 2018, the "one belt and one road" initiative put forward 5th anniversary. Over the past 5 years, the "one belt and one way" construction has yielded fruitful results, and more and more countries and regions have benefited from it. In the past 2013-2017 years, the total value of imports and exports of China's goods along the "one belt and one road" area was 33 trillion and 200 billion yuan, an annual growth rate of 4%, higher than that of China's imports and exports in the same period. The average annual growth rate is 1.4 percentage points, which has become a bright spot in the development of trade in goods.
(source: National Bureau of Statistics)
Editor in chief: Zhang Yan
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